The House of Worship and Baha’is of Ashkhabad

It’s always fascinated me that the very first Baha’i House of Worship (Mashriqu’l-Adhkar) no longer exists. Built in the city of Ashkhabad in modern day Turkmenistan, the House of Worship enjoyed only a brief 20 year history before it was relinquished to the hands of the Soviet authorities. It was later destroyed following one of the deadliest earthquakes in modern history, with tremors so severe that some estimates suggest almost two thirds of the city’s population perished.

The story of how this House of Worship came to be, and what was accomplished in those twenty years by one of the earliest Baha’i communities is fascinating. What’s more, there are many photos remaining in existence. We’ve compiled some of these images, along with a little bit of the story behind this foundational Baha’i community.

A Frontier Town

The city of Ashkhabad was something of a frontier town at the turn of the century. Coming into existence a scant two decades prior through a Russian territorial push, Ashkhabad was positioned well on trade routes that would see it quickly flourish.

With its close proximity to the border of Iran, the city attracted many early Baha’is fleeing persecution in their home country, and seeing opportunity in this fast growing new city. Along with Baha’is, many other Iranians, Jews, Armenians and Russians helped swell the population of the nascent city from just 4,000 at its founding in the early 1880s to some 52,000 by 1910.

The Murder of a Baha’i and a Surprising Outcome

At first the Baha’i community continued in this new home in much the same fashion as they had in their native Iran. Most Baha’is didn’t actively distinguish themselves as Baha’is, and were still mixed with a generally hostile Iranian migrant community.

Things came to a head in 1889, when a prominent Baha’i, Hajji Muhammad Rida Isfahani, was murdered in broad daylight in the middle of the main bazaar. The murder had been planned as the first act in a series of attacks on Baha’is. But the actions of the Russian authorities had a remarkable outcome:

“The perpetrators made no effort to conceal their crime. They asserted that it was a purely religious affair between Iranians, and the Russian authorities need not be involved. They assumed that, as in Iran, the mere fact of proving that their victim was a Baha’i would be sufficient to justify their action. When they saw however that the Governor took no notice of this line of argument, those involved in the plot began to flee to Iran. Some seventy persons fled. Nine were arrested and brought to trial. A military tribunal, sent from St Petersburg, tried the case in November 1890. The judges instructed that the different religious communities sit separately in the court-room. This was the first occasion when many who had secretly been Baha’is openly identified themselves by where they sat. It was also the first occasion in Baha’i history when official recognition was given to the Baha’i Faith as a religion independent of Islam. The court found against the perpetrators of the crime…. The Baha’is were of course jubilant. It was the first time in the forty-five-year history of the Babi-Baha’i movement that an attack on one of their number had been dealt with justly. Baha’u’llah commended the Russian Government for its action. As the news spread throughout Iran it increased the surge of Baha’i immigrants…”
M. Momen from The Baha’i Community of Ashkhabad; Its social basis and importance in Baha’i history

A Growing Baha’i Community

From this point onwards, the Baha’i community grew quickly. In 1902 there were over a thousand Baha’is in Ashkhabad. By 1919 there were four times that many. With this substantial community came many skilled Baha’i builders, merchants, scholars and craftspeople. By 1904 a foundation stone was laid for the construction of a House of Worship.

Unlike modern Houses of Worship, this one was built in the pattern that ‘Abdu’l-Baha has described, surrounded by a traveller’s hospice, a school, a cemetery, a dispensary and a hospital, and other institutions for social welfare. It was the focal point for an energetic and growing Baha’i community.

Images of the House of Worship

A 3D Rendering of The House of Worship

Shown Above: A 3D Rendering of The House of Worship, source unknown.

Haji Mirza Muhammad Taqi Afnan

Shown Above: Haji Mirza Muhammad Taqi Afnan, Vakilu’d-Dawlih, center, maternal cousin of the Bab, who largely paid for and supervised the building of the House of Worship. (Source – Worldwide Community of Baha’u’llah)

Laying the foundation stone of the Baha'i Temple

Shown Above: November 1902 — Laying the foundation stone of the Baha’i Temple, Russia Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, a cousin of the Bab, is standing next to General Krupatkin in the first row. (Source – Worldwide Community of Baha’u’llah)

The Baha’is of Ashkhabad gathered in the House of Worship.

Shown Above: The Baha’is of Ashkhabad gathered in the House of Worship. (Source – Worldwide Community of Baha’u’llah)

Entrance way of the House of Worship

Shown Above: Entrance way of the House of Worship
(Source – Archive)

Colourized depiction of the House of Worship

Shown Above: Colourized depiction of the House of Worship
(Source Unknown)

Postcard showing the House of Worship

Shown Above: Postcard showing the House of Worship
(Source – Delcampe)

Female Members of the Baha’i Community on the steps of the House of Worship

Shown Above: Female Members of the Baha’i Community on the steps of the House of Worship
(Source – Archive)

Interior of the House of Worship

Shown Above: Interior of the House of Worship
(Source – Archive)

More Images

You can find many more images of the House of Worship here on Archive.

A Historic Community

When the Russian revolution saw the rise of communism and the systematic abolition of religion in Russian society, the Baha’i Faith saw many setbacks. Obedient to the law of the land, the community handed over their beloved House of Worship, which became an art gallery before its demise in the earthquake of 1948. Eventually many members of the community were expelled, imprisoned and some even exiled to Siberia.

Despite its short life, the community of Ashkhabad has special historic significance for Baha’i history. It was the first sizeable, concentrated community that lived free of persecution, and flourished. In a short space of time it was the launching point for the Baha’i Faith spreading out of Iran, and a place where Baha’is practiced and expanded their faith in peace and harmony.

Moojan Momen has written a wonderful article on the community of Ashkhabad, on which much of this one is based. If you are interested in a more in depth exposition of the events and people of this period of our history, I highly recommend it as a short but fascinating read.

You may also be interested to read the letter from the Universal House of Justice to the Baha’i world announcing the fate of the House of Worship in Ashkhabad.

And if you’d like to see modern day Ashkhabad, then check out The Atlantic’s beautiful photo essay.


All Rights Reserved. All images are copyright of their respective photographers.

About the Author

Collis is a designer, entrepreneur, writer and Baha’i. He is the CEO of Australian tech company Envato, and cofounder of Baha’i Blog / Half Light Media.

Visit Author's Website

Discussion 12 Comments

  1. We also love the House of Worship of Ishqabad, which still serves humanity in the world of spiritual reality. See our Pinterest page of collection of images. Postcards can still be found online of the “Museum” in Ishqabad. And, the property of the House of Worship has been preserved as a park.

  2. A great read and I agree, I’ve always found the events surrounding this House of Worship very interesting. One can’t help but wonder what the divine wisdom is behind the earthquake and the ultimate demolition. My person opinion would be that given it was no longer in the hands of the Baha’is and being used for other purposes, perhaps it was better for the community to no longer have it. Ultimately it sounds like its construction prompted the building of the Chicago House of Worship which in itself was a fantastic accomplishment. I wonder how hard it would have been to continue running it safely after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, given it is so close to the border.

  3. What a wonderful amazing article ! I am
    A fourth generation Bahai and I had no idea about this . Thank you ! Beyond thank you for posting this ! God bless you and keep posting great articles .

  4. This article was information that was new to me. Thank you very much! It was incredibly interesting.

  5. He aprendido un poco más sobre nuestros Templos, los avatares de la comunidad Iraní y la historia bahá’i. Bello

  6. my only regret is you do not know who created the 3-D rendering of the house of worship. I wrote to ask permission to print a copy of it and you told me you do not know who made the image.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *