Naw Ruz marks the end of the Fast and the beginning of a new year in the Baha’i calendar. Naw-Ruz is a celebration of a “spiritual springtime” that symbolizes both individual renewal and mankind’s revitalization.
In a way, I’ve been waiting for 19 years to write this letter and it’s an honor that you are taking a few minutes from your busy life to read my broken thoughts about this topic. Whether you are a Baha’i youth, a parent of one, or maybe someone who isn’t in either of those categories, I’m thrilled that you feel this topic is worthwhile of your time.
Let me get right to it. Sex within a marriage is wonderful.
As Ruhiyyih Khanum so perfectly describes in her book, Prescription for Living:
When we unite love with sex in its proper place which is marriage, we have an abiding foundation of happiness and strength from which to draw. Sex can strengthen love, love can sublimate sex into a spiritual communication, a joy for the soul as well as the body.
Prescription for Living, by Ruhiyyih Rabbani, Chapter IV – Love and Marriage, Revised Edition 1978, pg 87
It has the most amazing ability to bond a husband and wife like nothing else. And once you get the technique down (which, contrary to any movie out there, takes a bit of time, work and patience), there is no other pleasure which can compare. It can blissfully take you to another world, calming nerves and providing a pillar of strength for your marriage. It is “…a joy for the soul as well as the body”. Sex is the ONE thing that separates your relationship from others, the special treat that God specifically designed for a husband and wife to enjoy together. What a kind and loving Creator we have! And not to mention, it has the potential to bring a soul into this world, connecting this material existence with the other Spiritual dimension. Wow!
But, to be honest, I’ve not always had this opinion about sex and it’s taken me almost 14 years of marriage and a lot of hard work, counselling and personal growth to finally arrive at this point.
My journey with the whole topic of sexuality began very early on, probably like many of you. It was in small snippets of confusing and mostly uncomfortable scenes: the pressure to kiss another on the school playground, an unexpected glance at a porn magazine, the longing to be in a romantic relationship in order to feel accepted and the inundation of sexual images from books, movies and the internet. Unfortunately, around this time of uncertainty, I attended a few talks about chastity and the primary message I took away from these meetings was “sexual acts are bad, unclean and avoid them at all costs”. Now, this was by no means explicitly said, but it’s what trickled through the filter of my unique brain. The complicated aspect of this was that, although the law of chastity is for our safety, happiness and protection (just like avoiding backbiting and saying an Obligatory Prayer), I was struggling to obey it fully. This lead to a lot of shame and guilt, which we all know, aren’t very helpful emotions when trying to change a behavior.
So let me tell you something right now. If you are grappling to remain chaste and are feeling guilty about it, just like I was, the most effective action you can take is to forgive yourself and try again tomorrow. We read time and time again at the end of our beautiful prayers, He is the All-Forgiving, the All-Merciful, and the All-Compassionate. And believe me, contrary to what is swirling around in your head, He really means it. When we stumble and fall a million times over, He picks us up, dusts us off and loves us unconditionally no matter how many mistakes we may make.
So there I was, a mere 17 years old, with all that misinformation about sex clogging up any possibility of seeing it as sacred and noble… and I got married. Suddenly, in the seconds it took to say “We will all verily abide by the will of God”, the message about sex flip-flopped. Now, sex was good! Natural! And actually necessary to solidify our union. And so our journey began, which is another letter entirely.
During these years of deepening my understanding about the Baha’i view of sex, I have thought about the topic of chastity a great deal. The simple question is: WHY is marriage the ultimate place for sex?
And what makes sense to me, and what I hope will help you too, is this…
Sex is a POWERFUL tool. Just like I mentioned before, its purpose is to bind and unite a husband and wife in a life that is often full of sorrows, tests and the boring, mundane activities of living. So, therefore, having sexual encounters prior to marriage literally forms those special bonds with others who are not your spouse. And regardless of what society might say, you bring all those attachments with you into your marriage. As you can imagine, this has the potential to cause a lot of unnecessary strain on your newly formed union, whether it shows up right away or years down the road (please refer back to the paragraph about forgiveness if you are feeling overwhelmed!).
And in what context are those premarital bonds being formed? Probably in pretty awkward, uninformed and hasty situations. There just isn’t going to be the sense of safety, commitment and deep love that is truly essential for a satisfying and fulfilling experience. And why is LOVE important, you may ask? Well, to quote Ruhiyyih Khanum again, “…love can sublimate sex into a spiritual communion….”. Sex, a SPIRITUAL communion! Imagine that! Pretty Awesome.
So here’s a final thought before I wrap up this letter, and leave you to ponder these fumbling words of mine. Be careful. Not out of fear that you will be found out or some flawed notion that sex is bad, but because, possibly one day (and maybe one day very soon), you will have the absolute privilege to join your soul with another and be able to experience one of the greatest blessings our Creator has offered us. So please be careful. Be careful not to allow this deteriorating world blind you of the true purpose and noble station that is meant for sex in marriage. For myself, once I recognized that we internalize the things we see, I understood the need to be VERY diligent about what I exposed myself to, whether it was simply a poster at the bus stop, a sexual scene in a movie or online pornography. Therefore I am challenging all of you to do the same. I know this will be extremely testing at times because the world we live in does not make this easy. But I know, for a certainty, that your resolve to make this a priority in your life will be rewarded.
And don’t be afraid to educate yourself about healthy sex, so once the big day arrives, you have a realistic idea of what to expect, how to improve and ways to communicate with your spouse about it.
I honor you, dear Baha’i youth, for having the courage to read this letter. I hope you have felt encouraged and that it wasn’t too much realism for you. Thank-you for the opportunity to bring my own journey full circle and to share a subject which has been the catalyst for so much growth in my own marriage.
Janna is a Marriage Coach whose passion is to help Baha’i couples create awesome relationships. She is determined to talk about the real issues in marriage so others don’t feel abnormal or alone in their struggle. Marriage is tough- we ALL need education and support to strengthen our “fortress for well-being”! Visit her website to learn more: www.yourfortressforwellbeing.com
Good article, and worthy of close attention. As the couple build those essential bonds that will see tham throughout all eternity as one, and make their way through the worlds of growth, of family and of solidarity built on genuine love and harmony and unity.
The real test may not come till later, as the couple age. When, for whatever reason, just one of the partners loses all their libido; if both lose that libido, it is far easier. It is then that the couple will find how well they have built those bonds of spiritual love and essential unity that this loss does not cause instability in the marriage.
Nether the one who has had the loss feeling any guilt at that loss, nor the one still with their libido in full swing being able to subdue the natural physical urges and sublimate them to the full and complete functioning of the unit as two in one, utterly regardless.
Romane (May 5, 2015 at 2:05 AM)
Ah yes, there are always opportunities to grow in a marriage- especially in this area of a relationship 🙂 Lots to learn!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 5:37 PM)
Janna! My name is Carrie Cattoni and I was connected with you 5 years ago when going through struggles. I am trying to be prayerful about a new friendship right now. I would love to get in touch with you somehow!
Carrie (April 4, 2021 at 9:39 AM)
I thought first a man was writing this. I think you have no idea what you are talking about. Sorry.
oli (May 5, 2015 at 7:34 AM)
You’re probably right Oli 🙂
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 5:35 PM)
Thank you for this beautiful letter. I have been in a wonderful marriage for 57 years, was not a Baha’i for 10 more years, but fortunately was taught to observe chastity, as my husband was. The well being it has conferred is immeasurable. Through difficulties, our loyalties were first and foremost to each other; we have had a “fortress for well being.”
Neena Miller (May 5, 2015 at 7:53 AM)
57 years- what a tremendous accomplishment! Thank-you for inspiring us all 🙂
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 5:34 PM)
Great point you make Neena. Hope all is well with you and your family. Margie and I will be moving over to Wasilla in about a week.
Leonard Revet (May 5, 2015 at 12:04 AM)
I certainly appreciate the intention behind this letter, and I hope it is only the springboard for a much larger conversation on sexuality and temptation. Youth today live in a far different world from the one I grew up in. They have to deal with questions of morality that I never had to deal with. Society’s rules around things like dating and choosing a partner have *totally* changed even in the decade-or-so since I’ve been married. It’s no longer good enough to toss out a bunch of warnings and send ’em on their way. We (the adults) need to also acknowledge the world they’re trying to navigate, give specific guidance, and above all be (appropriately) honest about our own struggles at their age.
TG (May 5, 2015 at 10:59 AM)
Yes!!! You nailed it. “It’s no longer good enough to toss out a bunch of warnings and send ’em on their way”- brilliant. This is a conversation I hope will continue, deepen and grow. As our society deteriorates around us, it will only become more pressing and urgent. Thank-you for this thoughtful comment!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 5:32 PM)
Yes! Where is this being helpfully and intelligently discussed?
Mike Bruwer (May 5, 2015 at 7:21 PM)
Thank you for your reflections and candor. Are there resources you recommend for further study into healthy sexual relationships? As you mention, an education is in order and it is so often overlooked and difficult to seek out as society seems to suggest skills and technique should “just come naturally”.
Anonymous (May 5, 2015 at 11:46 AM)
I really wish I had a great list of books to recommend but, unfortunately, I mostly work in the married realm. I’ve contacted a friend of mine in this field to become involved in this discussion so hopefully we get some resources here soon. For couples, I recommend “The Sex Starved Marriage” by Michele Weiner-Davis. I applaud you for taking this important step and we have much to learn in this area!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 5:29 PM)
This is a bit off topic, but I noticed in your bio that you were married at 17. I’ve known several Bahai couples who married as teenagers and quickly divorced. It would be great if you would write a piece about making marriage work when you marry at a young age. Like chastity, early marriage is actively discouraged in western society today. Another area where we need a lot of guidance.
Sandra (May 5, 2015 at 7:55 PM)
Thank you for your comments that add to an important discourse on spirituality and sexuality. I agree with all you have said, but I do feel this is such a complex issue that cannot be addresed without involving other social issues such as gender inequality and cultural norms (which as individuals, we often have limited control over). I would especially be interested in hearing your perspective on dealing with the issue of nonconsensual sexual activity and chastity. We live in a world with alarmingly high rates of child sexual abuse and sexual assault. There is nothing for these victims to be forgiven for, and yet they are left with tremendous feelings of shame and guilt. Very often society judges them guilty as well. And regardless of whether or not the victims consent, those “bonds,” are very often formed. It is important to teach our children and young adults about chastity and the writings give us guidance and structure. But, given the context the world currently exists and the reality that we don’t always know who has or will be sexually violated, how do we address chastity without further victimization. Thanks in advance for your thoughts.
Bee (May 5, 2015 at 8:30 PM)
You are absolutely welcome, Bee and I completely agree with you- a very complex issue. I’m so glad you brought up gender inequality and cultural norms as they are extremely important pre-martial discussions (which continue into marriage) and deserve a separate article entirely (or 5 or 6…). I also honor your courage to bring up the topic of nonconsensual sexual activity and abuse- something that I have very little experience or professional training around but fully acknowledge is a reality of this Age and echo your observations. So, although I wish I had a practical and insightful reply to your very thoughtful question- all I can do is validate your concerns and thank-you deeply for including this in the conversation. I’m hoping some other Baha’i professionals in the area might chime in…
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 11:06 PM)
Thanks for the request, Sandra! It’s a topic very dear to my heart, as you can imagine. When we were asking for consent, I taped the quote from Shoghi Effendi in which he encourages young marriage to my fridge- in plain sight for my parents 😉 Lets see if Naysan thinks its a good topic for Baha’i Blog…
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 11:12 PM)
Right here, Mike! What are you thoughts?
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 11:12 PM)
Early marriage is discouraged for good reason. Not only are most of today’s youth inadequately prepared at a such a young age, but there are wider social expectations that prioritise “having fun while you’re young and single” and “getting your life together first”. Sometimes society even punishes you. I know there’s no way my parents would’ve given permission without making sure we had a certain standard of living, including health insurance, because being married = no more coverage via Mom and Dad!
Sure, it can work – it clearly does for some people! – but the deck is clearly stacked against you, and honestly, I’m not sure I would actively encourage my kids to marry out of high school… nor would I encourage anyone to stay married if they were clearly too immature to do so. As much as we are trying to build a new and better society, we are still products of the one that created us, and we must still learn to navigate the world as it is now.
Just my 2.2c GST-inclusive, for whatever it’s worth.
TG (May 5, 2015 at 11:38 PM)
Ah TG, another thoughtful reply- wonderful! This is the quote I was referring to: “The Bahá’í youth should, on the one hand, be taught the lesson of self- control which, when exercised, undoubtedly has a salutary effect on the development of character and of personality in general, and on the other should be advised, nay even encouraged, to contract marriage while still young and in full possession of their physical vigour. Economic factors, no doubt, are often a serious hindrance to early marriage, but in most cases are only an excuse, and as such should not be overstressed.” (From a letter dated 13 December 1940 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer).
That being said, I loved what you said: “As much as we are trying to build a new and better society, we are still products of the one that created us, and we must learn to navigate the world as it is now.” 100% agree with that.
I’m not at all saying that young marriage is a good idea for everyone (nor is anything good for everyone!) – but- there are some definite advantages and the reality is that marriage takes hard work and effort- regardless of your age. It’s possible that some teenagers or early 20s are more up to the challenge!
Thanks for chiming in- great to get a variety of thoughts on this topic!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 12:28 AM)
You’re very welcome! And thanks for your kind words.
It would probably be helpful (generally speaking) to clarify what is meant by “youth” and “early marriage” – under 25? under 20? under 18? I think I’ve read that the average age of marriage for Gen-Y is around 29. I agree, btw, that earlier = better, but… I guess I feel that any discussion of the benefits/encouragement of young marriage must also take into account the wider social landscape and socialisation of today’s youth, in the world we live in *right now*, as opposed to an ideal future society that doesn’t exist… yet. If that makes sense.
I also admit huge bias of my own. I had a boyfriend in my teens/early 20s that I very nearly married. Thank goodness I didn’t, because it would’ve been a huuuuuge mistake. I see that now; I didn’t then.
Anyway, no doubt a discussion for a future article on the subject! 🙂
Really appreciate speaking with you, Janna. Take care.
TG (May 5, 2015 at 1:35 PM)
And I must admit I have my own bias (don’t we all!) because I got married at 17 and very few people thought it was a “good idea”, yet I have a fantastic, fulfilling and supportive marriage while some of the critics have gone on to divorce.
So, I really chalk it up to hard work, realistic expectations- and a level of maturity of course. We all need to educate ourselves on healthy relationships and our own selves- whether single or in a committed relationship- regardless if we are 18 or 38!.
Lets see if another article is in the cards because I think it would lend itself to a fascinating discussion.
It’s been a pleasure!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 7:14 PM)
My comment below I meant to put here. Which Baha’i communities are addressing this? Certainly the House’s recent letters on sex and chastity do. I’d like to know who is good at conducting these discourses with communities. Thanks.
Mike Bruwer (May 5, 2015 at 2:25 PM)
Mike- to the best of my knowledge, this is something that is slowly taking shape. I, personally, am trying to pull together a few Baha’i professionals in this field to discuss what steps we can take to move this discussion forward to reach the youth: at their level- answering the REAL questions- and avoiding judgment, shame, paternalism or scare tactics while still being clear on the standard which we all aspire to.
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 7:19 PM)
Janna, what a wonderfully encouraging article! While of course the subject of human sexuality is highly complex and you could not possibly touch on all the issues in a post (nor did you intend to), you have shared some of your experience as a Baha’i youth and young wife and modeled what I think is true for everyone- that each individuals’ journey in relation to their sexual identity, life experiences, and choices is unique and without a doubt involves some combination of challenges, tests, loneliness, confusion, frustrations, pain, sorrow, regret….it is an area of life that requires figuring out as we mature, and fortunately we have the Revelation to guide us in that journey. I so appreciate that you acknowledge it is not always an easy path and that with effort, education and healing, it is possible to personally reach a place of sexual well-being, contentment and joy.
Kelly (May 5, 2015 at 3:03 AM)
Why, Thank-you Kelly! Your voice echoed through my mind often as I pondered this topic and wrote this article. We need all the courage and openness as possible when discussing this sensitive and rarely spoken area. You have inspired me tremendously!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 6:58 PM)
Janna, we have connected about this subject before- harmonizing sex and spirit…
I look forward to continued conversation and working together to share a positive vision of sexual wellness!
For the parents out there, I would highly recommend the book:
“The New Speaking of Sex: What your Children Need to Know and When They Need to Know It.” by Meg Hickling R.N.
You can get it on Amazon.
I would recommend any of her books.
Kelly (May 5, 2015 at 3:32 AM)
Brilliant! I’m grabbing a copy asap because this conversation needs to start young- and at home- because children become youth in a blink of an eye.
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 6:59 PM)
almost did not read this article because I have read too many about how we should not expect so much of our youth, especially at this point in history or the scare tactics…loved, loved, loved it! Reality check is very nice. Having grown up not a Baha’i and during the 1970’s became a Baha’i…well, there were a few things I had to address in my life…a 20 year old college student who had been on my own since I was 16…. I had no doubt that I needed to revamp my lifestyle and perspective and it was not easy. No one told me to, I just read the Writings and it was clear….too often we make excuses for ourselves because it is difficult. It is difficult, life is difficult…if it was not, we would not need to be reminded to do or not do certain things. And in July we will be celebrating our 39th wedding anniversary. Relationships, life and chastity all are challenging and equally rewarding!
Lorine (May 5, 2015 at 6:11 AM)
Thank-you so much for taking the chance and joining in on the discussion. I certainly can’t stand “scare tactics” either- although it is incredibly hard to avoid any paternalism. And it IS difficult- and we do mess up… and it’s ok. Bravo on the 39 years!!! Fantastic accomplishment.
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 7:02 PM)
I knew as soon as I saw this that I was going to get annoyed reading this…sex before marriage can take place in a loving relationship, and let you get to know a person in a way you can NOT in any other way. If that relationship ends, it ends, not a big deal, you’ve still had a wonderful time with that person. Sex before marriage can also take place with a temporary fling and that is not forming inappropriate bonds it is just FUN! Adults, particularly parents need to just relax about it and not make the youth so uncomfortable by making it the be all and end all of our teenage years, it just makes us think about it more!
SW (May 5, 2015 at 2:57 PM)
Thanks for adding your thoughts to this discussion! As this blog is geared to Baha’is and the letter is written to “Baha’i Youth”, the assumption is that those who are reading are interested in following the guidance of the Baha’i writings- which are quite clear about this topic: sex is most satisfying, fun and safe within the loving stronghold of marriage. But I honor your journey and wish you all the best!
Janna Denton-Howes (May 5, 2015 at 2:24 PM)
I don’t want to repeat anything that is already said. I first would really love to thank you Janna for writing this letter, as it is very motivating. Now for my addition to the conversation: building on TG’s comments on early marriage. I totally agree that we are shaped by our society, but lately, all over the world, we are learning about how we can be a part of shaping it too.
Being a youth myself, there’s tremendeous pressure on us, a lot of forces are trying to shape us. On one side there’s our friends that wonder if we have a boyfriend/girlfriend or movies that tell us it’s normal to have a many relationships, and sex is ofcourse a part of all the normal healthy relationships, and then we have the Writings that tell us to have such rectitude of conduct that people will know that we are a Bahá’í, from our looks and actions.
Both of these sides shape us of course. What I wanted to add was this: If encouraged in the right way, a youth doesn’t have to feel bad for standing out of the crowd, not conforming to the social norms of drinking and sex or backbiting, and feel good about themselves. Such rectitude of conduct attracts. This one youth has the power to shape the social norms of their whole class, and if there’s a social discourse at the whole school about this topic: they have the power to affect the social norms of the whole school! And what power does a group of maybe 500(at 1 school) have? We should never underestimate the power of good example and rectitude of conduct.
Something i feel can hinder a youth from reaching the high standards of the Faith is underestimating them. Letting them be a product of society isn’t okay. At all times we must show by example how each person can make a difference at the grassroot. If your youth dont listen to you, they will listen to older youth. In todays society, i feel junior youth groups are their best shot.
Just to add, I am very passionate about this topic and could go on for a lot longer but I hope these thoughts can bring us further in this conversation.
Nina (June 6, 2015 at 8:29 AM)
As a college aged female grown up in a Catholic plus Protestant household, I have encountered a man of the Baha’i faith who does not know clearly what is and is not permitted by this faith in the world of relationships. I agree that sex should be reserved until marriage; but what about other sensual pleasures? Holding hands as well as little kisses are okay as I’ve gathered from other readings. How about a kiss on the neck? Where can I find from direct readings what exactly is forbidden? Also if dating a Baha’i is just supposed to be open projects and service together then why does it seem wrong to do the same with others? The water seems so murky. I was in a committed relationship when I met the Baha’i man and when I met him thought to myself that whoever ended up with him for life would be such a lucky lady and now that I’m single it has brought out all of these questions. Knowing that if I ultimately want to be with this guy then obviously I should stop all other bedroom encounters, but would we be allowed to pleasure each other in any sensual way that is not sex? There were quite a few loopholes from the Bible and I am determined to know if there are any in the Baha’i teaching. From experience I know how important sensual pleasures have been to growing a relationship’s intimacy. If I don’t have to give that up and if I could show him the pleasures then of course that’s what I really want. Please if you could, direct me to where I can learn more. Thank you.
Xi (December 12, 2018 at 1:31 AM)
Thank you so much for your really important and thoughtful questions! I don’t have a straightforward answer for you and whatever thoughts I have are precisely that — just my thoughts. They don’t reflect any authoritative view on the Baha’i Teachings.
The best place to find out more for yourself would be the Baha’i Writings. There is a compilation called “A Chaste and Holy Life” which can be read, in full, online at the Baha’i Reference Library: https://www.bahai.org/library/authoritative-texts/compilations/chaste-holy-life/
In this compilation, you will find the following quotation:
“Concerning your question whether there are any legitimate forms of expression of the sex instinct outside of marriage; according to the Baha’i Teachings no sexual act can be considered lawful unless performed between lawfully married persons. Outside of marital life there can be no lawful or healthy use of the sex impulse. The Baha’i youth should, on the one hand, be taught the lesson of self-control which, when exercised, undoubtedly has a salutary effect on the development of character and of personality in general, and on the other should be advised, nay even encouraged, to contract marriage while still young and in full possession of their physical vigour. Economic factors, no doubt, are often a serious hindrance to early marriage, but in most cases are only an excuse, and as such should not be overstressed.” (From a letter dated 13 December 1940 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer)
What is really important to know, in my opinion, is that the Baha’i laws are only binding on Baha’is — there is no expectation or understanding that people who are not Baha’is should have to follow Baha’i laws. In this sense, you are not bound by what the Baha’i Writings have to say about chastity. Your Baha’i friend, on the other hand, would have to follow his own understanding of the Baha’i Writings and the dictates of his conscious. The compilation also includes these helpful words:
“We have considered your several letters and have noted your questions, and your view that many Baha’i youth in … are confused, and are pleading for guidance in simple clear language on how to meet daily situations, particularly those involving sex.
It is neither possible nor desirable for the Universal House of Justice to set forth a set of rules covering every situation. Rather is it the task of the individual believer to determine, according to his own prayerful understanding of the Writings, precisely what his course of conduct should be in relation to situations which he encounters in his daily life. If he is to fulfil his true mission in life as a follower of the Blessed Perfection, he will pattern his life according to the Teachings. The believer cannot attain this objective merely by living according to a set of rigid regulations. When his life is oriented toward service to Baha’u’llah, and when every conscious act is performed within this frame of reference, he will not fail to achieve the true purpose of his life.
Therefore, every believer must continually study the sacred Writings and the instructions of the beloved Guardian, striving always to attain a new and better understanding of their import to him and to his society. He should pray fervently for Divine Guidance, wisdom and strength to do what is pleasing to God, and to serve Him at all times and to the best of his ability.” (From a letter dated 17 October 1968 written by the Universal House of Justice to an individual believer)
I hope this helps answer your question. Thank you so much for asking it!
Sonjel Vreeland (December 12, 2018 at 11:00 PM)
This is extremely helpful and was exactly the information I was seeking to find. Thank you for the care and thought you put into your response, I greatly appreciate it.
Xi (December 12, 2018 at 7:59 PM)
You’re very welcome, Xi. Thank you for your question. 🙂
Sonjel Vreeland (December 12, 2018 at 11:32 PM)